Environmental pollution in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom is one of the leading crude oil producers in the world. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is also a nation that has used technology to build some modern Eco-cities. Due to the production of the oil, the country boasts of a very strong economy. Consequently, as a result of the oil refineries the level of pollution is obviously very high. The paper will look at the pollution in general in the Kingdom as well as its impacts, and ways it can be controlled and prevented.
Environmental Pollution and Health Issues in KSA.
The Kingdom is characterized by three main pollution issues, air pollution, desertification and water pollution. First of all air pollution is perhaps one of the more significant ones in the country due to the vast crude oil refineries found here. The refineries produce a huge amount of greenhouse gases that impact the environment negatively. Additionally, the Eco-cities and the modern infrastructures built in the Kingdom are also significant producers of the dreaded greenhouse gas.
2in the case of water pollution, the country does not have many water sources, and therefore it has to result in desalination of the salty water from the sea. Desalination, therefore, means that the water left is too salty and concentrated with metal ions that in turn, change the sea’s ecology and affects the lives of the animals found in the ocean.
Desertification is, on the other hand perhaps the most significant form of pollution in KSA. Over three-thirds of the Kingdom is covered by desert, and this makes it difficult for the nation to produce food for its people, especially food crops. This also means the country has very few water reserves and therefore farming is difficult, and consequently, the nation solely depends on the oil for its economy.
Describe the sources and pathways of exposure groups.
Pollution in this Kingdom as illustrated earlier comes from the gases emitted from the products of the carbon-based fuels that are the main activity in KSA. This includes the oil refineries, as well as the vehicles and the types of machinery used in the mining process. The several exposure methods involved include; transport and dispersion via the air; aerosols and harmful gases are mainly dispersed through the atmosphere to the exposed groups.
The other exposure pathway is through water dispersion, here the pollutants are moved through the water and on to the exposed individuals, whether the marine life or by human consumption. It also may affect the land and render it inhabitable.
The other method is sources and emission whose main characteristic is exposure through from the source of the agent. This is very common, for instance, the smoke emitted from the refineries companies as well as the vehicles in the roads. Another significant method is the exposure through the land the contaminators, in this case, are transported through the land.
Enumerate methods to control and prevent pollution.
One of the main ways to reduce and eventually control environmental pollution is reducing the amount of lead and sulphur in the fuels used by our vehicles. The substances commonly found in the fuels we consume are very harmful to the environment once released in the air.
Reducing the desalination can as well significantly reduce pollution, this will involve using smarter ways to dispose of the sewage and to recycle the disposed water and thus depending less on the desalination plants.
Another way is by building Eco-cities, an initiative that has already born fruits in KSA. This is a longterm project that has the main aim of pollution reduction and preserving the environment. It uses technology to device smart systems concerning sewage, highway etc.
How public health policy and environmental law supporting to promote public health?
The KSA has many environmental pollution challenges as observed above as such, the governments have set up various policies and procedures that aim to address the health impacts of the pollution on the lives of the citizens. For example, they have environmental reforms that address public health and pest management. Also, it has prioritized public health by ensuring that there is no excessive use of the chemicals, and the greenhouse gas emission is reduced considerably.