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Art Movements

The mid-nineteenth Century is described as an age of realism

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The mid-nineteenth Century is described as an age of realism

Chapter 23

  1. The mid-nineteenth Century is described as an age of realism because it was made up of significant progress in industrialization and science. The era was also made up of artworks that attempted to represent subject matter truthfully without avoiding exotic and other supernatural elements. Realism is a period that occurred during the mid-ninetieth Century, while romanticism took place towards the end of the 19th
  2. Darwin’s theory challenged traditional Christian belief, and it also undermined the scripture in many ways. Regarding nationalism, Darwin’s theory influenced social methods that determine people’s interaction. Darwin’s theory affects the conceptions of time because it discussed different theories concerning time. Darwinism theory held contrast beliefs about the origin of humans, and it indicated that humans evolved from apes.
  3. Marx believed in laws of freedom and natural rights. Marx was also an intellect during the enlightenment age, and thus, his knowledge can be considered similar to scholars of the enlightenment age. Marx claimed that people could not be left alone to govern themselves in market places or economies. Between economies and though, Marx indicated that thoughts are crucial in determining the effectiveness of economies.
  4. History utilized Marx’s claims and predictions in determining various events such as politics.
  5. Mill was a believer in liberalism, and he believed that freedom of thought and expression. Green rejected Laissez-Faire ideologies while Spencer thought that new liberalism would make individuals dependent on a state.
  6. Feminism insisted upon the principles of liberty and equality that were expressed by the philosophies embodied in the French declaration of the Rights of man. Therefore, it is evident that feminism concepts evolved from other ideals.

Chapter 24

  1. Nationalism promoted unity in some lands and divisions in others in multiple ways. In promoting unity, patriotism unified individuals against the enemy. In contrast, nationalism also divided people by contributing the spread of hate against ethnicities in a certain region.
  2. Unification of Germany was crucial because it led to transformation of a Germany into a unified state and it also promoted abandoning of idealism for realism. Unification of Germany under Prussian leadership led to reforms that strengthened Germany and also contributed to abolishment of tariffs between States.
  3. Extreme nationalism promoted rational and logical thinking and thus, some concepts of Enlightenment were fulfilled. Mythical thinking was abandoned due to embracing nationalism because it supported objective truths rather than unfound concepts.
  4. The relationship between the two is that they took place during similar Century. Modern anti-Semitism promoted mythical thinking by embracing the concepts of hostility, prejudice as well as discrimination.

Chapter 25

  1. England was considered the model liberal nation because most of the Industrial revolution began in that country. The country also experienced political and economic stability.
  2. French workers and employers found it difficult to work together for reform because of the different views regarding the socioeconomic trends that affected social as well as political movements. At that time, workers also demanded increased wages and improved working conditions that created a rift between employers and workers.
  3. During the 1870s, many firms competed with one another for railroad firms. Railroad moguls therefore defeated their rivals and acquired immense capital and funds. The fight between the rich and the poor as well as the moguls created a new wave of liberalism.
  4. In Russia, it was difficult to achieve liberal reforms and industrialization because of factors such as political, economic and social reasons. Politically, Russia was not stable and thus, many liberal reforms could not be adopted in that region.

Chapter 2

  1. Modern arts and thoughts differed from the Enlightenment tradition because it stressed the significance of reason, science, and human goodness. Enlightenment on the other hand focused on people’s thoughts and the ideologies of human rationality and goodness were questioned. In modern arts, such thoughts were utilized.
  2. Nietzsche scorned Christianity because he did not believe in man’s essential goodness and rationality. He also claimed Christianity has taken the side of everything weak and ill-constituted. He scorned democracy because he claimed that emergence of a higher man in Europe meant that such people could not be held back by egalitarian rubbish.
  3. The thoughts of Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, Bergson and Sorel exemplified the growing power and appeal of irrationalism they all attacked the fundamental outlooks of Enlightenment that promoted liberalism and socialists.
  4. Freud contributed to understanding of irrationalism by describing the potential harms of irrationalism. Freud did this by comprehending it scientifically and regulating the interests of civilization. Freud’s explorations of the unconscious world is crucial and it has contributed to understanding various concepts, a factor that contributes to Enlightenment.
  5. Modernists’ movements of arts differed with the standards of aesthetics it adhered to Nietzsche’s notions.
  6. Modern physics altered the Newtonian conception of the universe because it transformed the world of classical physics.
  7. The Enlightenment tradition differed with concepts of the early twentieth Century because it contained some of the concepts that were disregarded by social Darwinists as well as other scholars.

Chapter 28

  1. The nationality problem in Austria-Hungary contributed to the outbreak of World War I because they embraced pseudo-scientific racial and social Darwinist doctrines that supported conflict and subjugation of other people, a factor that facilitated World War I.
  2. For the Triple Entete, the major cause of the war was as a result of fear of Germany. Other reasons include Bosnian Wars, Balkan Wars and the assassination of Francis Ferdinand.
  3. Many Europeans celebrated the coming of war because of reasons such as offering escape from dull classroom, job, home as well as emptiness and mediocrity. Other reasons why Europeans celebrated the coming of war includes it would foster unification of nations and also because war would regenerate the nation.
  4. Wilson’s peace program was named the “Honor to Wilson the Just”. The program faced obstacles that include France’s demand for security and revenge, intermingling of nations and great bitterness that existed between countries.
  5. The Provisional Government and liberal democracy failed in Russia in 1917 due to heavy-handed repression from the government.
  6. World War I transformed the consciousness of Europeans by altering the course of western civilization and deepening spiritual crisis. It also acted as a great turning point for countries in the West.

Chapter 29

  1. A totalitarian state involves total obedience to the authority, a totalitarian party gives isolated and alienated individuals a sense of belonging. A totalitarian state has overriding significance of a leader and also leaders in such governments want more power.
  2. Stalin was motivated by threats from other political leaders. Communists’ bureaucrats participated in Stalin’s inhumanities because they were promised political power after their engagement in the war.
  3. Fascists’ movement features include determination to eradicate liberalism as well as Marxism. The other feature is drawing mass support from lower class individuals and the ideology of exalting a leader who is believed to be the best for a nation.
  4. Hitler disliked liberalism concepts because he was believed in totalitarianism. He also believed in war and he wanted to engage the Jews so that he can wipe their entire generation Hitler also utilized propaganda to spread his beliefs.
  5. Nazism values collided with Christianity values. Regarding Enlightenment, Nazism disregarded some of the concepts put forth by scholars who embraced Enlightenment. Nazi regime attracted many supporters due to use of propaganda.
  6. Democratic societies draw many lessons from the Nazi regime that include embracing liberalism and the significance of utilizing power for the right purpose.

Chapter 30

  1. A somber mood that gripped intellectuals acted as a way of showcasing the mood of pessimism and disillusionment. Individuals also recognized that they are mortal like others.
  2. Art and literature in the 1920s reflected on the effects of World War I. Most of the novels focused on expressing the ills of World War I. Artists on the other hand focused on artistic works that illustrated the event.
  3. Intellectuals struggled with the crisis of European society in the period after World War and the end of totalitarianism. Intellectuals struggled to reaffirm their ideals of rationality and freedom.
  4. Factors that promoted existentialism include the notion that the universe is devoid of meaning and the notion of how people cope in a society where technology has taken control of diverse processes. Principles of existentialism includes the fact that there is no truth that exist independently and the belief in God but not in Christian policies.

Chapter 32

  1. The Cold War started from differences in ideologies and political ambitions of the United States and the Soviet Union.
  2. Crucial changes that took place in Western Europe after World War II included political stability that enhanced economic, political and social activities. Other changes included relationships between countries that took part in the War.
  3. The major factor that led to the revolution of 1989 in Eastern Europe includes disintegration of the Soviet Union. Another factor is the events in Poland that abolished Communist Bureaucracy.
  4. Problems facing the European Union includes lack of funds, enmity between countries in that union as well as lack of policies that maintained the countries involved.
  5. Factors that led to the end of Cold War include Gorbachev initiatives that sought to ease international tensions by withdrawing the Soviet army from Afghanistan. The collapse of communism also promoted the end of Cold War.
  6. Communism collapse led to opening of a new era in Eastern Europe by formation of democratic governments and dictatorship governments came to an end.

Chapter 33

  1. Collapse of Communism affected Eastern Europe and Russia by revealing its weak and poorly established society.
  2. Problems associated with the European Union include global financial meltdown of 2008 that resulted to the Great Recession, it also resulted to massive unemployment in Spain.
  3. The major tension surrounding Muslim immigration to Europe include alienation from the European society, conflicting cultures and conflicting religious values.
  4. The reasons for the surge of anti-Semitism in the contemporary Europe includes poor treatment directed towards Jews and physical attacks from diverse ethnicities.
  5. Radical Muslims aim to spread their religion to diverse individuals. The United States and other European countries should allow Muslims to spread their religion without implementing policies that bar them from spreading their religion.
  6. The euphoria has changed due to transformations that have taken place in cultural systems
  7. West’s roles includes implementation of policies that determine the diverse processes that take place in different regions. Another role is to ensure peace globally.
  8. Reasons to be optimistic about current world conditions include the changing technology and transformations in people’s thoughts regarding diverse aspects.
  9. Ideas of the Western traditions include struggle for human right, equality in gender roles and focus on attention to individual freedom. Such ideals can be preserved by believing in numerous aspects.


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