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The World Trade Organization and the United Nations Security Council.

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The World Trade Organization and the United Nations Security Council.

The Marrakesh Agreement founded the World Trade Organization (W.T.O.)  on Jan. 1, 1995 (Michalopoulos, 128). The Marrakesh Declaration, which embodies the Marrakesh agreement, was ratified by 12 countries on Apr. 15 1994 in Morocco. The World Trade Organization holds the title as the most extensive interstate economic organization. The Marrakesh Agreement substituted the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was in place since 1948 (Michalopoulos, 128). The new agreement presents a dispute resolution mechanism that is more effective and legally binding than the means outlined in the previous General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Koul 635).

The Marrakesh Agreement is a culmination of negotiations and agreements conducted during the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations, which lasted for eight years (Michalopoulos, 129). The countries that were party to the agreement recognized their shared goals and interests. The trade and economic relations among the member countries should be aimed at improving living standards, increasing employment opportunities, ensuring the optimal use of resources towards sustainable development, the conservation of the environment, and the expansion of trade services and goods. Meeting these objectives would provide all the countries benefit from international trade despite their level of economic development.

The existence of the World Trade Organization presents numerous advantages to its member countries. The conflict resolution mechanisms in place in the organization promotes peace among countries engaging in a competitive trade. The rules followed by the organization sets limitations and give less powerful and smaller nations bargaining power when engaging in more powerful countries in trade (Kumar et al., 15). The world Trade organization also facilitates free trade and lowers trade barriers for all members without discrimination. The general outcome of the World Trade Organization is the increase in trade and income and conflict resolution.

The disadvantages brought on by the World Trade Organization include the tendency for powerful countries to use less-developed nations to lower the market. This habit does not break the rules but still disadvantages the weaker countries. The lack of democracy and transparency within the organization, the nations with the most multinational entities usually have the upper hand and influence the implementation of rules to their favor. The enforcement of labor and human rights, as outlined in the agreement, has been less than impressive. Petitions on such rights are often brought forward but ignored.

The United Nations Security Council is among the principal organs of the United Nations. The United Nations was formed after the Second World War to replace is predecessor, the League of Nations. The United Nations Security Council is made up of fifteen members. Five of the members are permanent and have veto power; the United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Russia. The remaining ten members are temporary, regionally elected members serving a two-year term. The presidency of the council is shared among all members on a monthly rotation.

The United Nations Security Council is responsible for the maintenance of international security and peace, the recommendation of new United Nations’ members to the General assembly, and the approval of any amendment to the United Nations ‘charter. To perform these mandates, the United Nations Security Council has the following powers: the endorsement of military action by resolutions, the issuance of international sanctions, and the authorization of operations aimed at peacekeeping.

The United Nations Security Council has both advantages and disadvantages. Members of the United Nations receive immediate consideration and response from the council in the event of a dispute or disaster. The threat of sanctions by the Security Council helps to prevent mischief by member states against other nations or in violation of human rights. So far, the peacekeeping efforts of the council have prevented the occurrence of another world war. The regulations considered and passed by the security council tend to trickle down to the municipal legislation of individual states. The most significant cons of the United Nations Security Council are the regulations and rules that favor the more powerful nations. The veto power held by five countries gives them the capability to influence decisions in their favor (Allen et al., 10). Furthermore, the cold war demonstrated that power struggles and conflicts among the veto powers could limit the council’s capable nature (Ralph et al. 631).

The World Trade Organization and the United Nations Security Council are both international bodies with considerable influence over their member nations and the rest of the world. Their efforts in the maintenance of peace and economic growth help in the growth of many countries and international relations. However, the power politics within both organizations limit their potential impact tremendous growth and development. The powerful nations do not outrightly break the rules and regulations set but use their veto powers or might in international companies to swing trade benefits in their favor.


Works Cited

Allen, Susan Hannah, and Amy T. Yuen. “Action or inaction: United Nations Security Council activity, 1994–2013.” Journal of Peace Research (2020): 0022343319900222.

Koul, Autar Krishen. “Developing Countries in the GATT/WTO.” Guide to the W.T.O. And GATT. Springer, Singapore, 2018. 635-670.

Kumar, Mohan, Mohan Kumar, and Ghosh. Negotiation Dynamics of the W.T.O. Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Apr. 15, 1994, U.N.T.S. 154.

Michalopoulos, Constantine. “The Birth of the W.T.O.” Aid, Trade, and Development. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2017. 127-163.

Ralph, Jason, and Jess Gifkins. “The purpose of the United Nations Security Council practice: Contesting competence claims in the normative context created by the Responsibility to Protect.” European Journal of International Relations 23.3 (2017): 630-653.

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